On Physics Programm
On Physics Programm
The projects adopted by the Scientific Potential Foundation in the Physics nomination explore the following themes:
- 1. Energy sources and energy transformation methods.
- Thermal Physics.
- Nuclear energy use.
Priority is given to works oriented towards solving market problems. Even if a winning project is classified as fundamental, supplements to such project are to be reviewed in future.
The second requirement to contest projects in physics is that they have to be conducted by small research teams so that the Foundation support is allotted to a whole project, not to separate fragments of a large-scale work, as in the latter case support given to even a strong team performing an important task might bring a zero result.
The third requirement: the Foundation does not support routine research; although routine researching is vital for every professional researcher, the Scientific Potential Foundation focuses on short-term investigations bringing weighty results, preferably breakthroughs.
Below are several samples of projects that received the Foundation's support in 2006 and 2007.
1. Contractual research No. 96 (2006), conducted at the Chelyabinsk State University under V. D. Buchelnikov supervision: 'Development of New Type of Energy-Saving Solid-State Cooler Operating Through Magnetic Refrigeration. The project's objective was creation of a totally new, space saving, ecologically friendly and highly reliable refrigerator operating through the magnetocaloric effect within the room temperatures range. The project's other goals were obtaining a working substance for the magnet refrigerator and theoretical investigation of these substances' properties, namely, their magnetocaloric effect. A prototype of a refrigerator operated through magnetocaloric effect within the room temperature range was made. Alloys of three types were created for producing a working substance for the magnet refrigerator (rare-earth metal Gd (as a pattern), alloy Ni2Mn0.75Cu0.25Ga and alloy La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13). The first two alloys were used for making 72 0.3-0.5 mm-thick plates (from each alloy) as the working substance in the magnetic refrigerator.
2. Research No. 98 (2006) conducted at the United Institute of High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Science under S. A. Medin supervision, 'Hydrodynamics of Burning and Dispersion of a Micro-Target and Radiation Streams Impact on the Chamber Wall of the Heavy-Ion Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor', explores the problem of controlled inertial fusion energy. The project's objective was creation of a mathematical model describing thermal physical and neutron-physical processes in the power thermonuclear chamber with a porous first wall protected with a thin fluid film. A full closed mathematical model was worked out to describe thermal physical and neutron-physical processes in the power thermonuclear chamber in the context of the heavy-ion inertial fusion energy concept. Renewed data about the process of dispersion of a deuterium-tritium micro-target have been obtained.
3. Project 27-02-5 (2007), Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, supervised by V. I. Krinichny: 'Influence of Nano-additives on Photonics of Fullerene-modified Conducting Polymer'. Organic conducting polymers are used as an active matrix of plastic solar cells. Using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy method, magnetic, relaxation and dynamic parameters of native paramagnetic centers as well as the structure, conformation, oscillatory and other modes of their micro-surrounding in the original fullerene-modified organic conducting polymer will be defined. Further research is expected to result in creation of pre-production models of plastic light-transforming systems for their following industrial production.
4. Project 27-02-24 (2007), Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', supervised by G. I. Dolgachev , 'Investigation of External Magnetic Field Influence on Plasma Dynamics in Plasma Current Interrupter'. One of the key problems of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) on the basis of imploding liners is generation of super powerful electromagnetic impulses (10 MV, 50-100 MA, 100 ns). The most powerful water-line-based generators were build back in the 1980s, but high costs of cumbersome water lines constrain further increase of energy and power of such generators. Inductive energy storage systems with a higher (up to ~30 J/cm3) energy density can be an alternative to water energy storage systems. It was suggested to use the plasma current interrupter (PCI) for transferring their energy to physical load. The project stipulates a research of filling the PCB gap with plasma, axial acceleration of plasma with current and the mechanism of its inhibition. The estimated result is an increase of the parameters of electromagnetic energy impulse with non-linear load (liners or diodes).
5. Project 27-02-28 (2007), Thermal Physics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, supervised by A. N. Pavlenko: 'Investigation of Mechanisms and Dynamics of Disintegration of Flowing Fluid Films in the Conditions of High-intense Thermal Surges'. Abnormally high fluid-deflected thermal currents occur during unstable heat exchange between a solid wall and a liquid, in certain conditions. They can considerably exceed critical loads normal for stable heat exchange. At the same time, a liquid can reach the boundary of meta-stable state (spinodal). One of this process features is a very short time of safe work of heat releasing elements operating in the conditions of high-intensive thermal loads. This project stipulates a set of experimental investigations of the mechanisms and kinetics of disintegration of a flowing fluid film with thermal load contrast - with a film flowing of saturated cryogenic fluid (nitrogen) and water - considerably below the due point temperature. The results obtained can be of global significance. From the practical viewpoint, they can be useful for creation of heat exchanging equipment operating with unstable thermal loads (periodical, impulse, surging etc.) and are as well vital for defining the modes for safe and sustainable operation of heat exchanging and power equipment with thermal current pulsations.
Of course, the above-stated requirements constrict the number of applicants; the majority of the physical research milieu might even stay out of our contest. Yet, the Foundation does not repeat the state priorities, nor does it follow the state approach to science funding. Our goal is to support and promote and, perhaps, raise top-class research physicists; in this regard, along with proper professional training, individual positive result experience is vital.